Surrounded by provinces Erzincan and Erzurum in north, Muş in east, Diyarbakır in south, Elazığand Tunceli in west, Bingöl is on Iran Transit Route-which is one of the main highways from east to west. The city, which is in Upper Euphrates Side of Eastern Anatolian Region, has 1151m of altitude and 8125,3 km2 of survey. Bingöl has 8 counties, 11 municipalities, and 320 villages. Its total population in 2017 is 273.354 and the distribution of its population is shown in table below:
As well as the climate changes depending on counties and topography, Bingöl has a terrestial climate. The summers are hot, arid; winters are cold, harsh. The average annual temperature is 12 °C. Glacial lakes on Bingöl Mountains indicate that the region was once covered with glaciers in Ice Age. Bingöl mostly has rough and high terrains, which is occupied by hills and mountains higher than 2000m. Its highest mountain is Bingöl Mountains with height of 3250m.
Bingöl is one of the cities in Eastern Anatolian Region that has the richest forestland.